1) Ease and simplicity are characteristics of Islam.
2) The permission of Masih (to wipe over socks and shoes).
3) The description of socks and shoes that can be wiped over.
4) The duration through which one can do Masih.
5) The rulings of wiping over splints or casts.
6) The way the Prophet (Salla Allahu Alaihi Wa Sallam) performed Wuduo’ (ablution).
7) How to perform Ghusl (bathing).
8) Dispraising extravagance.
Praise be to Allah, Who has guided us to Islam and perfected it for us, thus completing His Favors on us. I praise Him, glorified is He, the Sovereign, the Most Holy, the Peace. I testify that there is no god but Allah, with Whom there is no associate. He made the religion easy for Muslims and relieved them from hardships, doubled the reward of good deeds and opened the gate of repentance, and promised forgiveness for the repentant and the seeker of Allah's Forgiveness.
I testify that Muhammad (Salla Allahu Alaihi Wa Sallam) is His servant and Messenger, who was sent with the upright and tolerant religion and was assigned the final universal message and the praiseworthy stance in the audience of his Lord on the Day of Judgment. May Allah bless him and his Companions.
O People! Fear Allah duly for fearing Allah requires obeying Him and remembering Him without forgetting, giving thanks to Him rather than being ungrateful to Him. So obey your Lord and do not be disobedient to Him and remember Him and do not forget Him.
Give Allah due thanks and do not be ungrateful to Him. This way you will
win His forgiveness, love, pleasure and
Servants of Allah! Among the great favors of Allah that should be remembered and appreciated, as is mentioned in the Qur'anic verse which translates as: "He has chosen you, and has imposed no difficulties on you in religion; it is the faith of your father Abraham. It is He Who has named you Muslims” (Al-Hajj: 78).
Easiness and removal of hardships are all-inclusive principles of the Islamic laws. This can be seen in the following Qur'anic verse which translates as: "O ye who believe! when ye prepare for prayer, wash your faces, and your hands (and arms) to the elbows; rub your heads (with water); and (wash) your feet to the ankles. If ye are in a state of ceremonial impurity, bathe your whole body. But if ye are ill, or on a journey, or one of you cometh from answering the call of nature, or ye have been in sexual contact with women, and ye find no water, then take for yourselves clean sand or earth, and wipe your faces and hands. Allah doth not wish to place you in a difficulty, but to make you clean, and to complete His favour to you, that ye may be grateful"(Al-Ma’idah: 6).
In this verse, Allah mentions the favor he bestowed on His servants through facilitating the practices of purification and explains its types very simply. The verse first describes ablution, which is the purification from minor impurity and all that nullifies ablution. The parts of the body to be washed or wiped during ablution are mentioned i.e. face, hands, head and feet. Perhaps these parts are specifically mentioned because they are more likely to be exposed to dirt and dust than any other part of the body. In addition, these parts are commonly used by man in committing sins, which necessitates that they must be perfectly purified five times daily.
O Muslim! Besides ablution, purification from major impurity, i.e. seminal discharge due to any factor, such as intercourse, menstruation and postnatal blood, is referred to which translates as: "If ye are in a state of ceremonial impurity, bathe your whole body" (Al-Ma’idah: 6).
The Prophetic Sunnah explained how to perform Ghusl [ritual bathing] beginning with rinsing the sexual organ with water, then performing ablution, pouring water over one's head thrice or until it becomes totally wet, washing the right side of the body three times, the left side three times, and washing one's feet. In this way, both Ghusl and ablution are achieved, provided ablution is intended.
The Prophet (Salla Allahu Alaihi Wa Sallam) used to perform ablution with two handfuls of water (Mudd) and to make Ghusl with ten or twelve handfuls of water (Bukhari & Muslim). It was the Prophet's habit (Salla Allahu Alaihi Wa Sallam) to economize in using water for ablution or Ghusl. He urged Muslims to economize when using water for Ghusl or ablution, but that did not mean that they were not performed thoroughly and perfectly.
As water often becomes rare or nonexistent, especially in journeys, or it happens that water is available, but cannot be used due to an illness or any other legal reason, Muslims are permitted to substitute ablution with Tayammum. Allah says which translates as: "But if ye are ill, or on a journey, or one of you cometh from offices of nature, or ye have been in contact with women, and ye find no water, then take for yourselves clean sand or earth, and rub therewith your faces and hands" (Al-Ma’idah: 6).
Tayammum is regarded a perfect purification with which a Muslim can perform supererogatory and obligatory Prayers. It is treated like water in terms of purification and the cases in which it is annulled. It is performed by striking the surface of earth with both hands once, then wiping one's face and the back of his hands once. Wiping over the leather and cloth socks and other footwear when performing ablution is also permitted.
This is a concession proved by the chain of sound narrations from the Prophet (Salla Allahu Alaihi Wa Sallam) which amounts to forty Hadiths narrated by seventy Companions, each of which narrated that he saw the Prophet (Salla Allahu Alaihi Wa Sallam) wiping over his leather socks. No difference ever occurred concerning this issue. It was also reported on the authority of nine Companions that the Prophet (Salla Allahu Alaihi Wa Sallam) wiped over his cloth socks and other footwear. Their reports were not opposed by any conflicting opinion. This was the pratice of the companions, Tabieen and all the righteous scholars after that. Al-Mughirah bin Shu'bah reported; I accompanied the Prophet (Salla Allahu Alaihi Wa Sallam) on a journey. When he performed ablution, I hastened to remove his leather socks but he said: "Let them! I wore them after ablution". He thus wiped over them (Al-Bukhari & Muslim). It was also reported on the authority of Al-Mughirah bin Shu'bah that the Prophet (Salla Allahu Alaihi Wa Sallam) performed ablution and wiped on the cloth socks and the shoes (Tirmidhi).
O Muslims! The footwear, whether leather or cloth socks should cover the feet up to the ankles. It should not be shorter than that for it should cover the parts that must be washed during ablution. Thus, wiping becomes a substitution for washing. As for shoes, cut leather socks, and all footwear that does not cover the ankles, it cannot be wiped. If one is in the habit of taking off his leather socks upon entering the mosque or upon joining a counsel, etc., he should limit himself to wiping over cloth socks only.
Wiping over the sock is permissible only if ablution is performed following minor impurity, such as urine, breaking wind, excrement, and similar acts of nullification. In the instance of major impurity, such as seminal discharge and menstruation, socks must be taken off and feet must be washed, to complete purification.
Safwan bin 'Assal reported: When we were in a journey, the Prophet (Salla Allahu Alaihi Wa Sallam) used to order us not to take off our leather socks for three days and nights, except in the case of a seminal discharge, but not for excrement, urination or sleep (Ahmad, Nisa’i, Tirmidhi).
O believers! The duration of wiping begins from the first occurrence of wiping in an ablution resulting from impurity, that followed wearing the leather or cloth socks until the same time next day, for a resident or until the same time two days later for a traveler. It was reported on the authority of 'Ali (may Allah be pleased with him) that the Prophet (Salla Allahu Alaihi Wa Sallam) said: "Three days and nights for a traveler, and one day and night for a resident," meaning the duration of wiping over the leather socks (Muslim).
Safwan bin 'Assal (may Allah be pleased with him) said: the Messenger of Allah (Salla Allahu Alaihi Wa Sallam) commanded us to wipe over the leather socks, worn in the state of purity, for three days in case of journey, or for a day and night if we were residents.All the above Hadiths indicate that the duration of wiping over the socks starts form the time of wiping, not from the time of wearing the socks.
So fear Allah, you servants of Allah and give Him thanks for His Favors and for the facilities He gave you in the laws of religion. Repent to Allah from all sins and errors. As He says which translates as: "O ye who believe! Turn to Allah with sincere repentance: in the hope that your Lord will remove from you your ills and admit you to Gardens beneath which Rivers flow; the Day that Allah will not humiliate the Prophet and those who believe with him. Their Light will run forward before them and by their right hands, while they say, "Our Lord! Perfect our Light for us, and grant us Forgiveness: for Thou has power over all things" (At-Tahreem: 8).
May Allah made the Holy Qur'an a source of guidance for you and I, may we benefit from its guidance and proofs. I seek Allah's forgiveness for you and I from all sins, so seek His forgiveness for He is All-Forgiving, Most Merciful.
Praise be to Allah, the Lord of men and jinn and all that exist. The Most Beneficent, the Most Merciful, the Lord of the Day of Judgment. I testify that there is no god but Allah, with whom there is no associate, the Only True Sovereign. I testify that Muhammad (Salla Allahu Alaihi Wa Sallam) is His servant and Messenger, the truthful and honest man, the manifest preacher. May Allah bless him, his family, his Companions, and those who follow him and abide by his Sunnah in the appropriate manner until the Day of Judgment.
O people! Fear Allah to the extent that is due to Him and accept the religion and guidance with which your Prophet Muhammad (Salla Allahu Alaihi Wa Sallam) was sent. Know that this religion is well-founded, so stick to it according to your means. Be acquainted with its proofs and judgments, so that you will be neither neglectful or extreme in your worship. In a Hadith the Prophet (Salla Allahu Alaihi Wa Sallam) said: "Those who exceed the proper bounds have rendered themselves to perdition". Thus, whoever slackens in doing his duty is a neglectful person, and whoever exceeds proper limits in doing his duty, he is a transgressor. In all affairs the happy medium is the best. If one knows any of the judgments of this religion on a clear ground, he should act according to it, and teach it to whoever does not know. If one has no knowledge of a certain question, he should ask the people of knowledge as the Qur'an advises us.
Servants of Allah! Among the concessions that clarify the easiness of this religion and Allah's Clemency with His servants is that Allah legalized for us to wipe over the splint, made of wood, cloth, etc., bound on the fracture or wound. In the instance of ablution or ritual bath, one may only wipe over the splint without a need to wash the spot of the fracture or wound, or to make Tayammum.
This is based on the narration made by Abu Dawud and Al-Daraqutni on the authority of Jabir (may Allah be pleased with him) who said that the Prophet (Salla Allahu Alaihi Wa Sallam) said concerning the man who died due to the effect of his head fracture: "It was sufficient for him to bind his wound, then wipe over the bandage and wash the rest of his body". This Hadith is corroborated by the Hadith of 'Ali (may Allah be pleased with him) concerning wiping with water over the splints, in addition to many other proofs.
There are three points that one should know about the splint or bandage:
First: It is not required that a splint or bandage cover the whole part of the body that is to be wiped or washed in ablution. Rather it should only cover the spot of wound or fracture, not exceeding it, if possible.
Second: Wiping should be made over the whole splint or bandage.
Third: There is no time limit for wiping over the splint or bandage as long as there is a need for it.
O our Lord, give us a good reward in the worldly life, and a good reward in the Hereafter and save us from the torture of the Hellfire. Allah says which translates as: "Allah commands justice, the doing of good, and liberality with kith and kin, and He forbids all shameful deeds, and injustice and rebellion: He instructs you, that ye may receive admonition" (An-Nahl: 90).
Remember Allah the Great, that He may remember you. Thank Allah for His Favors, that He may give you more. Allah's Remembrance is greater, and Allah knows what you do.