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1) Description of Hajj (major pilgrimage) and the rituals of each day.
2) Glorifiying the commandments of Allaah.
3) Refraining from prohibitions that affect Hajj.
4) Prohibited acts during Ihraam (state of a pilgrim in which he performs Hajj or ‘Umrah)
O people! In these days, you are
drawing near to the season of journeying to the Sacred House, hoping for
Allaah’s forgiveness from all sins, anticipating to achieve everlasting
felicity in the Abode of Peace (i.e.,
O Muslims! You head in (these) virtuous times for virtuous places and dignified sanctuaries to perform one of the most honored kinds of worship, not out of pride or hypocrisy nor for fun or recreation, rather for the sake of Allaah and as an asset for the Last Abode. Thus, you should carry out this worship as commanded by Allaah, without excess or negligence, so that you may attain what you desire of the remittance from sins and attainment of the eternal bliss.
During your journey and your stay (in your travels), abide by what Allaah enjoined upon you of purification, prayer, as well as other religious rituals. If water is available, purify yourselves with it; but if it is not, you may resort to Tayammum, that is, wiping over your faces and hands with pure dust.
Establish prayers in congregation and do not be diverted from it by occupying yourselves with tasks that can be fulfilled afterwards. As soon as you depart your towns, you may shorten the four Rak’ah (units of) prayers – Dhuhr (), ‘Asr (afternoon) and ‘Ishaa’ (night) – reducing each to two Rak’ahs only, until you return home. This is applicable in all cases, unless you join congregational prayers which are being performed completely, in which case you must not shorten it. Combine both Dhuhr and ‘Asr prayers together, offering both at the time of either one; also, combine Maghrib and ‘Ishaa’ prayers, performing both at the time of either. This (i.e., offering two prayers at one time) is valid only if you are on the move; however, if you are settling in Makkah or Mina, it will be nearer to the Sunnah not to do so, but you will still have a choice.
Adopt good moralities of truthfulness, tolerance, cheerfulness, generosity and benevolence, as Allaah loves the benevolent. Persevere in the face of hardships and harm, since Allaah is with those who are patient. It was reported that journey, which is ‘Safar’ in Arabic, was labeled thus because it reveals (i.e., ‘asfar’ in Arabic) the real dispositions of people.
When you reach the Meeqaat (the location that a pilgrim should not go beyond without entering into the state of Ihraam), bathe yourselves and apply perfume to your bodies, including your heads and beards. Then wear the garb of unscented Ihraam – two pieces, lower and upper, white garments for men whereas for women, anything they wish that does not expose their adornments. Do not go beyond the Meeqaat without putting on Ihraam!
Assume Ihraam from the first Meeqaat you pass by, because the Prophet sallallaahu 'alayhi wa sallam defined Meeqaats and then said, “These are for their dwellers (i.e., people who live there) and for those who pass by them other than their dwellers.” In case of traveling by air, passengers should prepare themselves in advance and then enter into the state of Ihraam when they pass alongside Meeqaat before exceeding it. After (assuming) Ihraam, you should go to Makkah while pronouncing Talbiyah, (a prayer) like that uttered by the Prophet sallallaahu 'alayhi wa sallam, which is ‘Labbayka Allaahumma Labbayk, Labbayka Laa Shareeka Laka Labbayk, Innal-hamda Wan-ni’mata Laka Wal-mulk, Laa Shareeka Lak’ – ‘I respond to Your call, O Allaah, I respond to Your call; I am obedient to Your orders and You have no partner, I respond to Your call; all the praises and blessings are for You, all the sovereignty is for You and You have no partners.’ Only men should raise their voices while articulating this.
When you reach the Sacred House, perform the Tawaaf (circumambulation of Ka’bah) of ‘Umrah which consists of seven rounds. Know that the whole area of the Sacred Mosque is a place for Tawaaf, what is near and far from the Ka’bah, even from behind the Well of Zamzam; however, proximity is preferable if it causes no hardships or difficulties. When you complete Tawaaf, offer two Rak’ahs of prayer behind the Station (Maqaam) of Prophet Ibraaheem, close to it if possible or away from it, according to your capability. You should then perform Sa’i (pacing seven times between Safa and Marwah) of ‘Umrah between Safa and Marwah, consisting of seven rounds, beginning at the former and ending at the latter. If anyone performs Sa’i before Tawaaf, his Sa’i will be invalid, except if he does so forgetfully or due to ignorance. When you complete Sa’ i, you should shorten your hair by cutting it from all sides of the head, not from only one side as is done by some people. Women should cut an amount equal to a fingertip from the end of their hair. Upon doing this, the ‘Umrah will be complete and you will come out of your state of Ihraam.
On the eighth day of Dhul-Hijjah, you should put on Ihraam for Hajj from the place where you are, bathing yourselves and applying perfume, then wearing its garb. You should then intend to be in Ihraam for Hajj and proceed, reciting the Talbiyah, towards Mina, where you must offer the Dhuhr, ‘Asr, Maghrib (sunset), ‘Ishaa’ and Fajr (morning) prayers, shortening the four Rak’ah prayers, but without combining them. Each prayer should be offered separately on time, just as was done by the Prophet sallallaahu 'alayhi wa sallam.
By sunrise on the ninth day of Dhul-Hijjah, you should go to ‘Arafah, pronouncing Talbiyah, and combine the Dhuhr and ‘Asr prayers there, offering both at the time of the former. After that, you should devote yourselves to remembering Allaah, supplicating to Him and imploring Him while facing the Qiblah, even if the mountain (of ‘Arafah) is behind you; you must do so, raising your hands to your Lord, approaching Him with your hearts and hoping for His answer to your invocations and forgiveness of your sins. Make sure of standing within the area of ‘Arafah, as many pilgrims do not stay inside it, despite the fact that the Hajj is void if standing in ‘Arafah is not observed. The whole region of ‘Arafah is a place for standing; the Prophet sallallaahu 'alayhi wa sallam said, “I stood here and all the area of ‘Arafah is a place for standing.” Thus, the whole of ‘Arafah is considered valid for standing except at the bottom of the balley of ‘Urnah.
After sundown, you should head for Muzdalifah where you must offer the Maghrib prayer as three Rak’ahs and ‘Ishaa’ as two. Subsequently, you should offer the Witr prayer and spend the night there until you pray Fajr; then supplicate to Allaah, seek His forgiveness and proclaim His Greatness and Oneness until daylight appears manifestly. At that time, you should head for Mina, as was done by the Prophet sallallaahu 'alayhi wa sallam, who gave concession to the weak people to leave Muzdalifah (earlier) during the last hours of night.
When you reach Mina, you should begin with throwing seven pebbles, each of which should be a little larger than a chick-pea, consecutively at Jamrah Al-‘Aqabah; you may pick these stones up from wherever you want. Upon throwing each pebble, pronounce the Takbeer (i.e., Allaahu Akbar – Allaah is the Greatest) and know that the wisdom behind this is to establish the remembrance of Allaah and His glorification. Do not believe that you are throwing at the devils as is commonly believed by some, rather you throw pebbles at certain stones in certain places, solely to glorify Allaah and follow the conduct of the Prophet sallallaahu 'alayhi wa sallam. After this, you should slaughter your offering if you can afford doing so, applying the same requirements of the Udhiyah (sacrificial animal slaughtered in ‘Eed Al-Adhaa). For those who cannot pay for it, they should fast three days during Hajj and seven days after it. It is permissible to fast on the eleventh, twelfth and thirteenth days of the month, and the seven days (that are left) can be completed, either successively or separately, following your return. However, if you do offer a sacrifice, you should shave your heads while women should only trim. Once you do this and have thrown the pebbles, all acts forbidden while in Ihraam become permissible to you except sexual relations with your partners. You may wear your normal clothes and apply perfume, then go to Makkah where you should perform Tawaaf around the Sacred House for Hajj. Then, you should do Sa’i between Safa and Marwah, upon which, all prohibited acts during Ihraam will be lawful to you even intercourse with your spouses.
O Muslims! The pilgrims perform significant rituals on the Day of ‘Eed; this is why Allaah named this day as Al-Hajj Al-Akbar (the Greater Pilgrimage). They throw the pebbles at Jamrah Al-‘Aqabah, then slaughter their offerings, shave their heads or cut their hair short, after which they circumambulate the House and do Sa’i between Safa and Marwah. It is preferable to do all this on the day of ‘Eed in this sequence, but there will be no harm if they advance some acts over the others. Whenever the Prophet sallallaahu 'alayhi wa sallam was asked about changing the order of these rituals, he would permit it out of facilitation for and kindness towards the servants of Allaah. If you delay the Tawaaf and Sa’i until you leave Mina, there will be no problem with that, but you will not be permitted to have intercourse with your partners before fulfilling those rituals. Likewise, it is permissible to delay slaughtering of the sacrifical animal until the thirteenth day of the month and thus doing so in Makkah.
O people! You should spend the eleventh and twelfth nights in Mina and throw the pebbles during these two days after . Start with Al-Jamrah Al-Oola, throwing seven stones at it, pronouncing Takbeer with each pebble. Then move away from the crowds and supplicate at length to Allaah, while facing the Qiblah and raising your hands. You should then proceed to Al-Jamrah Al-Wustaa and do the same. After that, do likewise at Al-Jamrah Al-‘Aqabah, except that you must leave without standing for supplication, since this was the conduct of the Prophet sallallaahu 'alayhi wa sallam.
Do not throw pebbles before midday on the days that follow ‘Eed, as the Prophet sallallaahu 'alayhi wa sallam did not so except after then; this practice can be done until sunset. However, if there are dense crowds, you may delay doing it till the night because the Prophet sallallaahu 'alayhi wa sallam stated the time of the beginning of throwing pebbles without mentioning before when to end. He also permitted the weak to rush from Muzdalifah before dawn to protect them from the dangers of vast crowds.
Moreover, you should throw the pebbles yourselves and not authorize anybody to do this on your behalf, as it is an obligatory ordinance for men and women alike. Thus, each pilgrim should do so for himself, unless harm may be incurred while doing it, such as due to sickness, old age or pregnancy. In such cases, a proxy may be appointed; the assigned person should throw pebbles at the three Jamrahs, first on behalf of himself then for the person who assigned him.
Your Hajj completes upon throwing the pebbles on the twelfth day. It will be permissible then to leave Mina before sunset or to spend the thirteenth night in Mina (as well) and throw the pebbles on the next day after , which is better and in accordance with the traditions of the Prophet sallallaahu 'alayhi wa sallam.
You should perform the farewell Tawaaf when you intend to return home after the completion of the Hajj rituals. It will be incorrect to throw pebbles at Jamaraat following the farewell Tawaaf as it contradicts the instructions of the Prophet sallallaahu 'alayhi wa sallam, since he commanded that the last thing to be done before departing is to perform circumambulation around the House. The farewell Tawaaf is an obligatory practice on every pilgrim who departs Makkah after performing Hajj or ‘Umrah, except the menstruating women or those with post-partum bleeding, who are not required to so.
Upon returning home, you should thank your Lord, return to Him in repentance, stick to obeying Him and avoid committing sins after they have been remitted from you.
Allaah said which means, “Hajj is (during) well-known months, so whoever has made Hajj obligatory upon himself therein (by entering the state of Ihraam), there is (to be for him) no sexual relations and no disobedience and no disputing during Hajj. And whatever good you do – Allaah knows it. And take provision, but indeed, the best provision is fear of Allaah. And fear Me, O you of understanding.” (Al-Baqarah: 197)