ÇáÅíãÇä ÈÇáÞÏÑ II
1) Believing in the Divine decree is one of the pillars of faith.
2) The pillars of believing in the Divine decree:
a. Allaah has full knowledge of everything.
b. Everything was recorded in the Preserved Tablet before creation.
c. Whatever Allaah wills, will definitely occur and that the Might of Allaah is comprehensive and infinite.
d. Allaah created reasons and means, and has connected them to results.
3) Man’s actions are the result of his own determination, choice and capability, which Allaah has endowed him with.
All praise is due to Allaah Who created all things and ordered them in due proportions. All affairs are managed according to His wisdom. To Him belongs the dominion of the heavens and the earth. There is no support without Him. I testify that there is nothing worthy of worship except Allaah, with Whom there is no associate. To Him belongs the dominion and all praise; and He has Power over all things. I testify that Muhammad is His servant and Messenger who was sent as bearer of glad tidings; and as a warner; and as a lamp giving the light of guidance; and as caller to Allaah. May the blessings of Allaah be upon him, his family, his companions, and all those who follow them sincerely until Resurrection Day.
O people! Fear Allaah and have sound belief in Him. You must believe in His destiny, His might and His will. This is because belief in Allaah’s destiny is one of the pillars of faith, without which a person’s belief will be incomplete. In order for one to have a correct belief in destiny, the following four pillars must be fulfilled:
The First Pillar: Is to believe that Allaah has full knowledge of, and is a witness over everything. Nothing has ever occurred, is occurring, or will occur, in the heavens or on the earth, except that He has complete knowledge of it. Indeed nothing is hidden from Allaah, whether it is in the heavens or on the earth, vast or minute. Almighty Allaah says that which translates as: “And with Him are the keys of the unseen; none knows them except Him. And He knows what is on the land and in the sea. Not a leaf falls but that He knows it. And no grain is there within the darknesses of the earth and no moist or dry [thing] but that it is [written] in a clear record.” (Al-An’am: 59).
The Second Pillar: Is to believe that Allaah has inscribed the destiny of everything in His Preserved Tablet which is guarded (by angels) until Resurrection Day. Everything that has occurred, is occurring, or will occur, whether in the heavens or on the earth, was written in this Preserved Tablet fifty thousand years before the creation of the heavens and the earth. Therefore, regarding these two pillars, Almighty Allaah says that which translates as: “Do you not know that Allaah knows what is in the heaven and earth? Indeed, that is in a Record. Indeed that, for Allaah, is easy.” (Al-Hajj: 70).
The Prophet sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam said: “The first thing which Allaah created was the Pen. Then He ordered it to write. The Pen asked ‘What should I write?’ Allaah said: ‘Write down everything that will occur until the Day of Judgment.’”
It is on the night of Al-Qadr, or divine decree, that everything which will occur during the forthcoming year is written. Allaah says that which translates as: “Therein [i.e., on that night] is made apportioned every precise matter.” (Ad-Dukhaan: 4).
When a foetus attains four months of age within its mothers womb, Allaah sends an angel to it who is ordered to write four matters therein: the amount of its provision, its lifespan, its amount of good or evil deeds and whether it will be wretched or blessed.
The Third Pillar: Is to believe in the comprehensive will and infinite might of Allaah, as well as believing that whatever Allaah wills shall certainly occur and whatever Allah does not will shall never occur. Therefore, everything that has ever occurred, or is occurring, or will occur, whether in the heavens or in the earth, be it tiny or huge is subject to Allaah’s will and under his Might and Sight. Allaah has written that this would occur as well as the reasons that led to its occurrence. Therefore, whoever performs a good deed does so according to the will of Allaah and whoever commits a sin, commits it according to the will of Allaah. He says that which translates as: “Whomever Allaah wills, He leaves astray; and whomever He wills – He puts him on a straight path?” (Al-An’am: 39).
Everything that occurs only does so due to the will of Allaah, even such mundane things as cooking food, preparing drink and buying and selling. Also, mans sleep, waking, movement and rest are done according to the will of Allaah. In this regard, the Prophet sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam said: “Everything is decreed by Allaah, even incapacity and capability.”
The Fourth Pillar: Is to believe that Allaah is the creator and controller of all things and that He facilitates all matters towards that which they were created for. Allaah is the creator of all means and He is the one Who connects each means with its result. He has taught and guided his slaves to these means by which they reach their objectives as a sign and proof of His bounties and favours upon them. This is all in accordance with His wisdom and mercy. In this regard, Almighty Allaah says that which translates as: “Have you seen that (i.e., semen) which you emit? Is it you who creates it, or are We the Creator? We have decreed death among you, and We are not to be outdone. In that We will change your likenesses and produce you in that [form] which you do not know. And you have already known the first creation, so will you not remember? And have you seen that [seed] which you sow? Is it you who makes it grow, or are We the grower? If we willed, We could make it [dry] debris, and you would remain in wonder, [Saying], ‘Indeed, we are [now] in debt; Rather, we have been deprived.’ And have you seen the water that you drink? Is it you who brought it down from the clouds, or is it We who bring it down? If we willed, We could make it bitter, so why are you not grateful? And have you seen the fire that you ignite? Is it you who produced its tree, or are We the producer? We have made it as a reminder and as a provision for the travellers, So exalt the name of your Lord, the Most Great.” (Al-Waaqi’ah: 58-74).
All man’s actions result from two matters; the first is his determination to do such an action, without which any action can and will never happen. The second is his ability to carry it out according the capability that Allaah has given him, as well as that which Allaah has guided him to of the means to carry out such an action. Therefore, if man does not have the ability to do an act, or is unaware of the means leading to the results that he requires, or does not have the determination to do it, then he will not carry out this or any other act.
There can be no doubt that Allaah has taught man the knowledge of means and their results. He has created in man intention, determination and capability which are all subject to His Will.
Almighty Allaah says that which translates as: “Have they not travelled through the land and observed how was the end of those before them? And they were greater than them in power. But Allaah is not to be caused failure [i.e., prevented] by anything in the heavens or on the earth. Indeed, He is ever Knowing and Competent.” (Fatir: 44).