The Death of the Prophet

 

Research Contents

 

1)     The importance of the event

2)   The Prophet was informed about when he would die

3)    The beginning of his death-sickness and its cause

4)   The Prophet was given a choice between eternal life and death

5)    The Death-Sickness of the Prophet

a.     His condition before he became extremely sick

b.    The extreme pain he suffered

c.     The duration of his death-sickness

6) The advice of the Prophet during his death sickness

7)    The last day of the Prophet's life

8)   The companions sorrow at the loss of the Prophet sallallaahu Ďalaihi wa sallam

9)   The age of the Prophet when he died

10)     The day on which the Prophet sallallaahu Ďalaihi wa sallam died

 

 

The importance of the event

      The month of Rabeeí Al-Awwal includes three important events which are; the birth of the Prophet sallallaahu Ďalaihi wa sallam, his migration to Madeenah and his death.

      Some Muslims imitate the Christians and other infidels (in their relationships with their Prophets) by regarding the birthday of the Prophet sallallaahu Ďalaihi wa sallam as the most important of the three events. Some of them even go as far as to think that this was the single most important event in the entire life of the Prophet sallallaahu Ďalaihi wa sallam.

      Although the birth of the Prophet was a blessed event, the only thing that distinguished it from all other births is the fact that he sallallaahu Ďalaihi wa sallam went on to became a messenger of Allaah.

      His migration was far more important than his birth, because it resulted in the establishment of the Muslim community and the first Islamic state. This state lasted for many centuries and introduced to humanity a distinguished civilization that was unsurpassed in history. Due to the importance of this event, ĎUmar ibn Al-Khattaab, may Allaah be pleased with him, and the Muslims after him based the recording of Islamic history according to it. Ash-Shu'bi narrated that: "Abu Moosaa, may Allaah be pleased with him, wrote to 'Umar, may Allaah be pleased with him (When he was the ruler of the Muslims), saying: 'we receive undated letters from you (i.e. we need them to be dated).' So 'Umar, may Allaah be pleased with him, gathered the people to decide on a method for initiating the method of dating. Some people suggested starting from the exact time that revelation began while others suggested beginning from the time of the migration. 'Umar, may Allaah be pleased with him, agreed with the second view and said: 'The migration distinguished the truth from falsehood, so use it as a starting point"'(Ibn Abu Shaybah).

      The most important event in the life of the Prophet sallallaahu Ďalaihi wa sallam was his death, as this was not the same as the death of anyone else, nor indeed like that of any other prophet. This is because all revelations and messages stopped with the death of the Prophet Muhammad sallallaahu Ďalaihi wa sallam.

      The Prophet sallallaahu Ďalaihi wa sallam informed us that his death would be a great disaster by saying: "O people! If any believer is afflicted by a disaster, let him remember the disaster of my death, so that this may give him ease, as nobody will be afflicted with a disaster which is greater than that of my death." (Ibn Maajah). As-Sindi said: "Remembering a greater disaster wipes out the effect of a smaller one, and if one was able to tolerate and shoulder the greater disaster then it becomes easier for him to withstand the smaller one."

      When the Prophet sallallaahu Ďalaihi wa sallam died, Umm Ayman, may Allaah be pleased with her, cried. When she was asked why, she replied: "I swear by Allaah that I knew the Prophet sallallaahu Ďalaihi wa sallam would eventually die, but I am crying because the revelation has stopped descending." (Ahmad).

      Abu Bardah, may Allaah be pleased with him, narrated that the Prophet sallallaahu Ďalaihi wa sallam said: "The stars safeguard the skies, and when the stars disappear, then the skies will get what they were promised (the day of Resurrection), and I safe guard my companions, so when I go (i.e., die) then my companions will get what they where promised (i.e., trials, wars, people apostatising etc..), and my companions safeguard the Muslim nation, so when they go (i.e., die) then my nation will get what they were promised (i.e., disunity, trials, hearts differing and other matters)." (Muslim). Commenting upon this Hadeeth, Imaam An-Nawawi, may Allaah have mercy upon him, said: "Everything that the Prophet sallallaahu Ďalaihi wa sallam stated in this Hadeeth regarding incidents that follow his departure has taken place."

 

 

The Prophet was informed about when he would die:

 

The Prophet sallallaahu Ďalaihi wa sallam was informed about when he would eventually die. Allaah says that which translates as: "Indeed, you [i.e, Muhammad Sallallaahu 'alaihi wa sallam] are to die, and indeed, they are to die]." (Az-Zumar: 30). He also says that which translates as: "And We did not grant to any man before you eternity [on earth]; so if you die Ė would they be eternal? Every soul will taste death. And We test you with evil and with good as trial; and to Us you will be returned." (An-Anbiyaa': 34-35) and also: "Muhammad is not but a messenger. [Other] messengers have passed on before him. So if he was to die or be killed, would you turn back on your heels [to unbelief]? And he who turns back on his heels will never harm Allaah at all; but Allaah will reward the grateful." (Aal 'Imraan: 144).

 

Ibn 'Umar, may Allaah be pleased with him, said: "When (that which translates as): "When the victory of Allaah has come and the conquest [i.e., of Makkah], And you see the people entering into the religion of Allaah in multitudes, Then exalt [Him] with praise of your Lord and ask forgiveness of Him. Indeed, He is ever Accepting of repentance." (An-Nasr: 1-4) was revealed to the Prophet sallallaahu Ďalaihi wa sallam during the days of 'Eid just after Hajj, it became known that his death was near." (Al-Bayhaqi).

 

Ibn 'Abbaas, may Allaah be pleased with him, said: ''Umar ibn Al-Khataab, may Allaah be pleased with him, asked them (i.e., a group of the companions) about the interpretation of the chapter of the Qur'aan (which translates as): "When the victory of Allaah has come and the conquest [i.e., of Makkah], And you see the people entering into the religion of Allaah in multitudes, Then exalt [Him] with praise of your Lord and ask forgiveness of Him. Indeed, He is ever Accepting of repentance." (An-Nasr: 1-4). Some of them replied: 'It is regarding the conquering of some areas by the Muslims' then Umar, may Allah be pleased with him asked: 'O Ibn 'Abbaas! What is you opinion?' Ibn 'Abbaas, may Allaah be pleased with him, said: 'This was a sign for the Prophet to know his time of death '" (Bukhaari).

 

On many occasions, the Prophet sallallaahu Ďalaihi wa sallam hinted to his companions about just how close his death was. For example, Mu'aadh Ibn Jabal, may Allaah be pleased with him, said: "When the Prophet sallallaahu Ďalaihi wa sallam was dispatching me to Yemen, he walked with me and was advising me while I was riding on my animal. When he finished his advice, he said: "O Mu'aadh! Perhaps you will not see me again after this year and perhaps you will pass by my mosque or grave" so I cried out of grief at the thought of the death of the Prophet sallallaahu Ďalaihi wa sallam. Then, the Prophet sallallaahu Ďalaihi wa sallam faced Madeenah and said: "The worthiest of my company (in the hereafter) are the most pious, whoever and wherever they are." (Ahmad).

 

'Aa'ishah, may Allaah be pleased with her, reported that: "Faatimah, may Allaah be pleased with her, came to the Prophet sallallaahu Ďalaihi wa sallam walking in the same manner as he walked. Upon seeing her, the Prophet sallallaahu Ďalaihi wa sallam said: "My daughter! welcome" then he sallallaahu Ďalaihi wa sallam seated her on his right or left and whispered something in her ear until she cried. Therefore, I asked her: 'why did you cry?' Then the Prophet sallallaahu Ďalaihi wa sallam whispered in her ear again until she laughed. So I said to her: 'I have never seen happiness and sadness so close to each other as I have today.' Then I asked her what the Prophet sallallaahu Ďalaihi wa sallam had told her. She replied 'I do not wish to divulge something which the Prophet sallallaahu Ďalaihi wa sallam whispered to me.' After the death of the Prophet sallallaahu Ďalaihi wa sallam, I asked her the same question again and this time she replied: 'First of all, he sallallaahu Ďalaihi wa sallam said to me: "Jibreel reviews the Qur'aan with me once every year, but this year he did it twice - and I think this is because the time for my death has come. And you will be the next to die from my family." Therefore, I cried. Then, he sallallaahu Ďalaihi wa sallam said to me: "Are you not happy that you will be the best of all the ladies of ParadiseÖ " so I laughed out of joy." (Bukhaari & Muslim).

 

 

The beginning of his death-sickness and its cause:

      The death-sickness of the Prophet sallallaahu Ďalaihi wa sallam was the result of a Jewish conspiracy. This happened because some Jews in Khaybar invited the Prophet sallallaahu Ďalaihi wa sallam and some of his companions for a meal which they had poisoned. The Prophet sallallaahu Ďalaihi wa sallam and his companions began to eat, then, suddenly, he sallallaahu Ďalaihi wa sallam said: "Everybody stop eating, because the food just spoke to me and told me that it was poisoned." Recalling this whilst on his deathbed, the Prophet sallallaahu Ďalaihi wa sallam said: "I can still feel the effect of what I ate in Khaybar, therefore, the time for my death time has come." (Abu Daawood).

      The Prophet's death-sickness began just after he buried one of his companions. 'Aa'ishah, may Allaah be pleased with her, said: "The Prophet sallallaahu Ďalaihi wa sallam came back from a funeral and found me suffering from a headache. I was saying: 'Oh my head!' so the Prophet sallallaahu Ďalaihi wa sallam said: "Rather, it is my head that aches." then he said: "What harm would it be to you (i.e., it would be better for you) if you die before me, then I could wash you, shroud you, pray over you and then bury you." I replied: "I swear by Allaah that if this were to occur then you would come back from my funeral and marry again; so he sallallaahu Ďalaihi wa sallam smiled - and it was at this point that his death-sickness started' (Ahmad & Ibn Maajah).

 

 

The Prophet was given the choice between eternal life and death:

 

Abu Muwayhibah, may Allaah be pleased with him, who was a servant of the Prophet sallallaahu Ďalaihi wa sallam narrated: "Once the Prophet sallallaahu Ďalaihi wa sallam called me in the middle of the night and said: "O Abu Muwayhibah, I have been commanded to supplicate for the forgiveness of the people of the Baqee' graveyard, so come along with me" so I went with him. When we reached it, the Prophet sallallaahu Ďalaihi wa sallam supplicated: "O people of the graves! May the salutations of Allaah be upon you. What you are facing is a lot easier than that which us who are alive are facing. If only you knew what Allaah has saved you from! The trials that we are facing have become darker than the night and are rapidly succeeding one another, each one worse than the one it succeeded." then he sallallaahu Ďalaihi wa sallam faced me and said: "O Abu Muwayhibah! I was given a choice (by Allaah); to have control over this world and live in it eternally, followed by Paradise; or, to meet my Lord (now) and be granted Paradise after that." So I said: 'I would sacrifice my father and mother for your sake! Choose the control over this world and to live in it eternally, followed by Paradise'. He sallallaahu Ďalaihi wa sallam replied: "No Abu Muwayhibah! I swear by Allaah that I have chosen to meet my Lord (now) and be granted Paradise after it." After this, he sallallaahu Ďalaihi wa sallam supplicated for the forgiveness of the people of the Baqee' graveyard and left. The next day, his death-sickness began." (Ahmad & Ad-Daarimi).

 

Abu Sa'eed Al-Khudri, may Allaah be pleased with him, narrated that the Prophet sallallaahu Ďalaihi wa sallam once said in a speech: ""Allaah has given one of his slaves the choice between this life and what He has for him (i.e., paradise), so the slave chose what Allaah had for him." Upon hearing this, Abu Bakr, may Allaah be pleased with him, began crying. We were all very surprised as to why would this story make Abu Bakr cry, but later we discovered that the Prophet sallallaahu Ďalaihi wa sallam was referring to himself as the one who was. It was then that we discovered that Abu Bakr, may Allaah be pleased with him, understood the Prophet sallallaahu Ďalaihi wa sallam the most." (Bukhaari & Muslim).

 

 

The Death-Sickness of the Prophet:

 

The death-sickness of the Prophet sallallaahu Ďalaihi wa sallam started at the beginning of the month of Rabee' Al-Awwal. His companions reported some of its details as follows:

 

      His condition before he became extremely sick:

 

'Aa'ishah, may Allaah be pleased with her, said: "When it became difficult for the Prophet sallallaahu Ďalaihi wa sallam to move about, he asked permission from his wives to remain in my house for the duration of his sickness and they agreed to this. One day, during this sickness, he was carried outside by Al-'Abbaas, may Allaah be pleased with him, and another man while his feet were dragging along the ground." (The second man was reported by Ibn 'Abbaas, may Allaah be pleased with him, as being 'Ali Ibn Abu Taalib, may Allaah be pleased with him)

 

'Aa'ishah, may Allaah be pleased with her, said: "The Prophet sallallaahu Ďalaihi wa sallam said whilst in his house suffering from intense pain: "Pour on me seven Qirbahs (rubber containers) of water which have been unopened (from the time they were brought from the well). Perhaps I will then be able to go out and address the people."" In another narration, he sallallaahu Ďalaihi wa sallam said: "ÖFrom seven different wells" (Tabaraani) and in another, he sallallaahu Ďalaihi wa sallam said: "Perhaps then I would recover and be able to go out and advise the people." After this, he sallallaahu Ďalaihi wa sallam was seated in a big basin which belonged to Hafsah, may Allaah be pleased with her, then we poured water over him until he beckoned us to stop." (Bukhaari & Muslim). Commenting on this narration, Imaam Al-Khattaabi, may Allaah have mercy upon him, said: "Perhaps the Messenger of Allaah sallallaahu Ďalaihi wa sallam mentioned the number seven because it is a commonly-used number in many areas of Islamic Law."

 

'Aa'ishah, may Allaah be pleased with her, said: "Whilst the Prophet sallallaahu Ďalaihi wa sallam was suffering from his death-sickness, the call to prayer was made. He sallallaahu Ďalaihi wa sallam said: "Command Abu Bakr to lead the people in the prayer." Some people advised him that Abu Bakr was a soft-hearted man who would not be able to restrain himself from crying during prayers. The Prophet sallallaahu Ďalaihi wa sallam repeated his statement and people repeated the same advice to him. When this happened for the third time, the Prophet sallallaahu Ďalaihi wa sallam said: "You people are just like the women who plotted against Yusuf! Command Abu Bakr to lead the people in the prayer." Therefore, Abu Bakr, may Allaah be pleased with him, went to lead the prayer, but all of a sudden, the Prophet sallallaahu Ďalaihi wa sallam felt that he was recovering, so he came out of his house leaning against two men." 'Aa'ishah, may Allaah be pleased with her, continued: "It is as if I am looking at his feet dragging on the floor from pain (i.e. he sallallaahu Ďalaihi wa sallam was unable to walk) at this very moment." She, may Allaah be pleased with her, added: "When Abu Bakr, may Allaah be pleased with him, felt the presence of the Prophet sallallaahu Ďalaihi wa sallam, he began to retreat from his position, but the Prophet sallallaahu Ďalaihi wa sallam signalled for him to continue. Then, he came and sat down next to Abu Bakr, may Allaah be pleased with him, and prayed on that spot." (Bukhaari & Muslim).

Al-A'mash, may Allaah have mercy upon him, was asked whether the Prophet sallallaahu Ďalaihi wa sallam became the Imaam for this particular prayer and whether people followed the motions of Abu Bakr, may Allaah be pleased with him, and he replied: "Yes."

 

Anas bin Maalik, may Allaah be pleased with him, narrated that during the death-sickness of the Prophet sallallaahu Ďalaihi wa sallam: "The Prophet sallallaahu Ďalaihi wa sallam did not come out for three days. After this, when the very next prayer was due, Abu Bakr, may Allaah be pleased with him, came forth to lead the prayer, the Prophet sallallaahu Ďalaihi wa sallam opened the curtain of his house (and looked at us from within his house). There was nothing more beautiful than his face when he looked at us on that day. After that, he pointed to Abu Bakr, may Allaah be pleased with him, to proceed and lead the prayer and then he closed his curtain. He sallallaahu Ďalaihi wa sallam was to never come out of his house again, until he died." (Bukhaari & Muslim).

 

Aa'ishah, may Allaah be pleased with her, said: "Whenever the Prophet sallallaahu Ďalaihi wa sallam would become sick, he would blow into his palms and then recite Al-Mu'awwidhaat (The last three chapters of the Qur'aan: Al-Falaq, An-Naas & Al-Ikhlaas) into them. Then he would wipe them over his whole body. However, at the time of his death-sickness, I recited them into his palms, held them and wiped his them over his body." (Bukhaari & Muslim).

 

      The extreme pain he suffered:

 

'Aa'ishah, may Allaah be pleased with her, said: "I have never seen anyone going through pain which is harsher than that which the Prophet sallallaahu Ďalaihi wa sallam suffered (during his death sickness)." (Bukhaari & Muslim).

 

'Abdullaah Ibn Mas'ood, may Allaah be said pleased with him, said: "I went to see the Prophet sallallaahu Ďalaihi wa sallam (during his death sickness) and found him suffering from intense pain, so I put my hand on him and said: 'O Messenger of Allaah! Indeed you are suffering from intense pain' he replied: "Yes, I suffer twice as much as anyone else would." I asked: 'Will you get double the reward?' he replied: "Yes." Then he said to me: "Allaah will remove sins, just as a tree sheds its leaves, for any Muslim who is afflicted with sickness or any other tribulation."" (Bukhaari & Muslim).

 

'Aa'ishah, may Allaah be pleased with her, said: "When the Prophet sallallaahu Ďalaihi wa sallam was on his death bed, I saw him dipping his hands into a bowl of water and wiping his face with them whilst saying: "Oh my Lord! help me through the hardships and agonies of death.""(Ahmad, Ibn Maajah & Tirmidhi).

 

Anas bin Maalik, may Allaah be pleased with him, narrated: "When the Prophet sallallaahu Ďalaihi wa sallam became gravely ill, he began to lose consciousness, so his daughter Faatimah, may Allaah be pleased with her, exclaimed: 'What extreme pain my father is suffering!' The Prophet sallallaahu Ďalaihi wa sallam heard this and said: "Your father will never suffer again after today."" (Bukhaari).

 

Umm Al-Fadhil, may Allaah be pleased with her (who was the mother of Ibn 'Abbaas, may Allaah be pleased with him) narrated: "The Prophet sallallaahu Ďalaihi wa sallam came out of his house during his death-sickness with his head tied and led the Maghrib prayer reciting Soorah Al-Mursalaat therein. He sallallaahu Ďalaihi wa sallam did not live long enough to pray the next days Maghrib prayer.' (Bukhaari & Muslim).

 

      The duration of his death-sickness:

 

Ibn Hajar, may Allaah have mercy upon him, said: "The majority of scholars are of the view that the death-sickness of the Prophet sallallaahu Ďalaihi wa sallam lasted for thirteen days. Some have added a day while others have deducted one. Also, there is group who hold the view that it only lasted for ten days".

 

 

The advice of the Prophet during his death sickness:

 

There is no doubt that everything which the Prophet sallallaahu Ďalaihi wa sallam said was full of wisdom; whether it was admonition, encouragement or advice. However, he sallallaahu Ďalaihi wa sallam gave his nation special advice during his death-sickness, just as he was approaching the Hereafter:

 

'Aa'ishah, may Allaah be pleased with her, said: "The Prophet sallallaahu Ďalaihi wa sallam said during his death-sickness: "May Allaah curse the Jews; they made their Prophets' graves into places of prostration." then she, may Allaah be pleased with her continued: "Had he not said that, then the people would have made his grave as a place of prostration; but I am afraid (in the future) that they will do so anyway" (Bukhaari & Muslim).

 

Sa'eed Ibn Jubayr, may Allaah have mercy upon him, narrated that Ibn 'Abbaas, may Allaah be pleased with him, said: "'Thursday, if only you knew what happened on Thursday!' Then he cried until the ground beneath him was wet. I (Sa'eed Ibn Jubayr) asked: 'O Ibn 'Abbaas! What happened on Thursday?' He replied: "The sickness of the Prophet sallallaahu Ďalaihi wa sallam became very severe, so he said: "Bring me a shoulder bone (of an animal) so that I can have something written on it, which, if you adhere to, will prevent you from ever going astray." Then, the people around him began arguing as to whether it should be written down or not Ė and these people should not have had a dispute in the presence of a Prophet. Then, the Prophet sallallaahu Ďalaihi wa sallam said: "Leave me alone, for I am (heading to) a better situation (having seen the good that Allaah had prepared for him) than what you are disputing about (i.e., it is better for me not to spend time in a useless dispute." Then, the Prophet sallallaahu Ďalaihi wa sallam commanded three things:† "Expel the polytheists from the Arabian peninsula, reward guests with gifts just as I used to do, and hold on to the Qur'aan."'" (Bukhaari & Muslim).

 

Ibn 'Abbaas, may Allaah be pleased with him, said: "The Prophet sallallaahu Ďalaihi wa sallam emerged from his house during his death-sickness covered with a blanket and with a cloth wrapped over his head. He sat on the pulpit in the Mosque, praised Allaah and glorified him and then said: "People will increase in number and the Ansaar (the residents of Madeenah during the time of the Prophet sallallaahu Ďalaihi wa sallam) will decrease in number until they become as scarce as salt is in food. Therefore, whoever finds himself in a position of leadership with which he can benefit or harm people should accept the goodness that the Ansaar do and forgive those who may misbehave from amongst them." This was the last time the Prophet sallallaahu Ďalaihi wa sallam sat with people to address them." (Bukhaari).

 

Ibn 'Abbaas, may Allaah be pleased with him, said that during the death-sickness of the Prophet sallallaahu Ďalaihi wa sallam: "The Prophet sallallaahu Ďalaihi wa sallam pulled back the curtain of his house while the people were lined up behind Abu Bakr, may Allaah be pleased with him, ready to pray, and said: "O people! There is nothing left from the glad tidings of prophethood except for good dreams which people have, or others have concerning them. I was forbidden to recite the Qur'aan while prostrating or bowing during my prayers, therefore, glorify Allaah when you bow down and exert great effort whilst supplicating during prostration; you will be responded to."" (Bukhaari).

 

Umm Salamah, may Allaah be pleased with her, said: "The Prophet sallallaahu Ďalaihi wa sallam said during his death-sickness: "Guard your prayers and watch over what your right hands possess." He continued to repeat these words until he was unable to talk." (Ibn Maajah).

Commenting on this Hadeeth, As-Sindi, may Allaah have mercy upon him, said: "The words "Guard your prayers" mean maintain them, take care of them and do not be negligent of them. "What your right hands possess" means pay the due Zakaah on the wealth that you possess. It could also refer to the rights of servants and the kind treatment that is due to them, as this terminology is commonly used in the Qur'aan. "Until he was unable to talk" means that he kept on repeating these words until he was so ill that it could not be understood if he was saying it or not."

 

Anas Ibn Maalik, may Allaah be pleased with him, said: "The predominant matter that the Prophet sallallaahu Ďalaihi wa sallam kept repeatedly stressing whilst on his death bed was: "Guard your prayers and watch over what your right hands possess."" (Ibn Maajah).

 

 

The last day of the Prophet's life:

 

Anas Ibn Maalik, may Allaah be pleased with him, said: "Abu Bakr, may Allaah be pleased with him, was leading the prayers during the death sickness of the Prophet sallallaahu Ďalaihi wa sallam. On a Monday during this sickness, while the people where praying, the Prophet sallallaahu Ďalaihi wa sallam pulled back his curtain and stood looking at us. His face was intensely illuminating - and then he smiled. We almost left prayer out of the joy of seeing him. Abu Bakr, may Allaah be pleased with him, began to retreat to the row behind him thinking that the Prophet sallallaahu Ďalaihi wa sallam would come out of his house and pray, but the Prophet sallallaahu Ďalaihi wa sallam signalled for us to continue praying, then he closed his curtain again. He sallallaahu Ďalaihi wa sallam died later that day." (Bukhaari & Muslim). In another narration: "He sallallaahu Ďalaihi wa sallam died at the end of that day." (Bukhaari). Commenting on this Hadeeth, Imaam Ibn Katheer, may Allaah have mercy upon him, said: "This Hadeeth proves that the Prophet sallallaahu Ďalaihi wa sallam died after noon of that day". On the other hand, Imam Nawawi and Ibn Rajab, may Allaah have mercy upon them both, were of the opinion that the Prophet sallallaahu Ďalaihi wa sallam died after sunrise of that day.

 

'Aa'ishah, may Allaah be pleased with her, narrated: "It is from the bounties of Allaah (upon me) that the Prophet sallallaahu Ďalaihi wa sallam died in my house whilst laying in my lap with me holding him between my chest and neckÖ Abdur-Rahmaan Ibn Abu Bakr, may Allaah be pleased with him and his father, went in to see the Prophet sallallaahu Ďalaihi wa sallam and had in his hand a Siwaak (a wooden tooth-stick) while I was holding the Prophet sallallaahu Ďalaihi wa sallam in my lap. I noticed that the Prophet sallallaahu Ďalaihi wa sallam kept looking at the Siwaak so I asked him if he wanted it. He nodded so I took it and began using it, but it seemed very hard so I asked him if I should soften it for him. Again he nodded, so I did so. There was a bowl of water next to the Prophet sallallaahu Ďalaihi wa sallam which he kept dipping his hands in and then wiping them over his head. Whilst doing this, he sallallaahu Ďalaihi wa sallam was saying: "Laa Ilaaha Illaa Allaah (there is nothing worthy of worship except Allaah), indeed death contains agony." Then he pointed upwards and kept saying: "Let me join the Highest Companions." until he sallallaahu Ďalaihi wa sallam died and his hand dropped." (Bukhaari & Muslim).

 

Anas Ibn Maalik, may Allaah be pleased with him, said: "Allaah continued to send down revelations to the Prophet sallallaahu Ďalaihi wa sallam until he died - and the most revelation he ever received in one day was on the day of his death." (Bukhaari & Muslim).

 

'Aa'ishah, may Allaah be pleased with her, said: "I heard the Prophet sallallaahu Ďalaihi wa sallam say whilst he had his head on my chest (during his death-sickness): "O Allaah! Let me join the Highest Companions.""(Bukhaari & Muslim).

 

'Aa'ishah, may Allaah be pleased with her, said: "When the Prophet sallallaahu Ďalaihi wa sallam became extremely sick, he laid down on my lap, put his head on my thigh and lost consciousness, then, he woke up and said: "O Allah! Let me join the Highest Companions." (Bukhaari & Muslim).

 

 

The companions sorrow at the loss of the Prophet:

 

Ibn Rajab, may Allaah have mercy upon him, said: "When the Prophet sallallaahu Ďalaihi wa sallam died, the Muslims were in a state of shock and confusion; some of them were bewildered, others were shocked and started to get things mixed up, others dropped to their knees and were unable to stand, others could not talk and others still refused completely to believe the news of his death."

 

'Aa'ishah, may Allaah be pleased with her, said: "When the Prophet sallallaahu Ďalaihi wa sallam died, Abu Bakr, may Allaah be pleased with him was not around. 'Umar, may Allaah be pleased with him, stood up and addressed the people saying: 'I swear by Allaah that the Prophet sallallaahu Ďalaihi wa sallam has not died and that Allaah will send him back to cut off the hands and legs of those who claim that he has died.' Then, Abu Bakr, may Allaah be pleased with him, arrived to where the Prophet sallallaahu Ďalaihi wa sallam, was lying, uncovered his face, kissed him and said: 'I would sacrifice my father and mother for your sake. You are just as fragrant after your death as you were during your life. I swear by the one in whose hand my soul is, Allaah will never let you die twice.' Then he went out face the people and said 'O you who is swearing (by Allaah) (meaning 'Umar) calm down!' When 'Umar, may Allaah be pleased with him, heard Abu Bakr, may Allaah be pleased with him, talking, he kept silent and sat down, so Abu Bakr, may Allaah be pleased with him, praised and thanked Allaah and then said: 'Whoever was worshipping Muhammad, then Muhammad is dead, but whoever was worshipping Allaah, then Allaah is alive and will never die.' Then he recited (that which translates as): "Indeed, you [i.e, Muhammad Sallallaahu 'alaihi wa sallam] are to die, and indeed, they are to die]." (Az-Zumar: 30). And also "Muhammad is not but a messenger. [Other] messengers have passed on before him. So if he was to die or be killed, would you turn back on your heels [to unbelief]? And he who turns back on his heels will never harm Allaah at all; but Allaah will reward the grateful."" (Aal 'Imraan: 144). (Bukhaari).

 

Anas bin Maalik, may Allaah be pleased with him, narrated: "Faatimah, may Allaah be pleased with her, cried at the death of the Prophet sallallaahu Ďalaihi wa sallam and said 'Oh my father! How close you are now to your Lord and Al-Firdaws (the highest rank in Paradise) is your abode.' (An-Nasaai').

 

Anas bin Maalik, may Allaah be pleased with him, also narrated: "I see the Prophet sallallaahu Ďalaihi wa sallam in my dreams every night except for the odd one in which I do not." He would cry as he said this. (Ahmad).

 

Also, after the Messenger of Allaah sallallaahu Ďalaihi wa sallam was buried, Faatimah, may Allaah be pleased with her said: "O Anas! How did you find it in your heart to throw soil over the Messenger of Allaah?" (Bukhaari).

 

Anas bin Maalik, may Allaah be pleased with him, also said: "I have never witnessed a brighter day than when the Prophet sallallaahu Ďalaihi wa sallam entered Madeenah with Abu Bakr, may Allaah be pleased with him and I was present at the death of the Prophet sallallaahu Ďalaihi wa sallam and have never witnessed a gloomier day than that." (Ahmad).

 

Abu Thu'ayb Al-Hudhali, may Allaah have mercy upon him, said: "When I arrived in Madeenah, I heard the people crying extremely loudly, just like the people in Hajj when they utter the Talbiyah collectively, I asked why this was so and was told that the Prophet sallallaahu Ďalaihi wa sallam had died".

 

Although the companions were extremely saddened and devastated at this loss, this did not force them out of the state of patience and perseverance and which they were upon.

 

 

The age of the Prophet when he died:

 

'Aa'ishah, may Allaah be pleased with her, said: "The Prophet sallallaahu Ďalaihi wa sallam died when he was sixty three years old." (Bukhaari & Muslim). Ibn 'Abbaas, may Allaah be pleased with him said the same thing as mentioned in Bukhaari, but in another narration in Muslim, he said he was sixty-five years old when he died. Anas bin Maalik, may Allaah be pleased with him, said that he was sixty years old when he died. (Bukhaari). Imaam An-Nawawi, may Allaah have mercy upon him, reconciled all these different narrations by saying: "The Prophet sallallaahu Ďalaihi wa sallam died when he was sixty three years of age, which is the most authentic and widely known narration. Those who said sixty five included the incomplete parts of his birth year and death year as full years, while those who said sixty three did not include them. Those who said sixty went by the common practice at that time of rounding to the nearest ten years."

 

 

The day on which the Prophet died:

 

Ibn Hajar, may Allaah have mercy upon him, said: "There is no controversy regarding the fact that the Prophet sallallaahu Ďalaihi wa sallam died on a Monday during the month of Rabee' Al-Awwal. However, some scholars have differed as to the actual date of that Monday on which the Prophet sallallaahu Ďalaihi wa sallam died. There are three different views on this regard:

 

  1. That the Prophet sallallaahu Ďalaihi wa sallam died on the first day of Rabee' Al-Awwaal.
  2. That he died on the second day of Rabee' Al-Awwaal.
  3. That he died on the 12th, which is the opinion of the majority of Muslim scholars.